Fruit Data: Yield, Sugar, Acidity, Tannin

©Copyright Ben Rotter 2004-2011


The following data represent typical ranges and average values of specific gravity, titratable acidity, pH, tannin and juice yield for a variety of fruits.

These data sets have been collected by the author from various sources. To the author's knowledge, this is the most complete and advanced database of its kind anywhere in existence. (This database has taken considerable time and resources to compile and analyse, so please be considerate and reference appropriately.)

The data is of high reliability. However, it is important to bear in mind that such data is highly specific to site, season and fruit variety. The same fruits (even if the same varieties) grown in a different location can, and will, yield different values. Most importantly, this data provides a reference standard (typical data ranges) for numerous fruit juices by which the winemaker can assess the maturity of a fruit by comparing that fruits' numbers to those provided here. It is additionally helpful when a winemaker does not (or cannot) measure such values and must assume them for winemaking process considerations/calculations. Where possible, fruit growing location is noted so as to provide insight into how the data values vary with location/climate, both trend-wise and quantitatively. Contributions to this database are welcome, and encouraged if the data can be guaranteed reliable. To contribute data, please email .

Notes and Data Key

SG refers to the Specific Gravity of the juice extracted from the fruit. Such juice is as low in non-fermentable suspended solids (SS) as possible. Where there was known to be a high level of non-fermentable SS in the juice, the SG is quoted as
< x (less than x) where x is the SG value obtained with the SS present.
L indicates the SG was measured using pure juice leached from the fruit (usually from thawing). The overall SG of the fruit juice will be slightly less than this value.
* indicates the SG is calculated from the concentration of reducing sugars in the juice.
@ indicates the SG is calculated from the concentration of total sugars in the juice.
Such values (marked with * and @) are invariably converted from Brix values (the ^ indicator therefore automatically applies - see below).
Where SG values have been calculated from juice SS and/or reduced sugars and/or total sugars, the average SG is calculated using (in preferential order): SG as juice SS, SG as total sugars, SG as reduced sugars. Such values are not necessarily representative of the fruit as a whole.
Where sugar values have been quoted as % in data sources and the units have not been stated, it has been assumed that they are expressed as %/juice weight (unless otherwise stated). This is a reasonable assumption since the difference between %/juice weight and %/juice volume values are small at the SG values considered here.
Where sugar values are given in g/l, the value has first been converted to degrees Brix and then from that to a SG. The conversion from grams sugar per litre is calculated as follows:
Brix value = 100x / (x + 1000*(1 - (x/1400)))
where x is the sugar concentration (g/l).
Brix is converted to SG using the formula: Brix = ((SG-1)*233)+0.6
(Small samples of the data below provided both SG and Brix data. Source (h) for blackcurrants confirms this correlation, with the data fit showing the relationship Brix = ((SG-1)*234)+0.57. However, sources (e) and (g) for cherries suggests Brix=(SG-1)*123+8, (o) and (q) for passionfruits suggests Brix=(SG-1)*125 + 1.6, and (af) for apples suggests Brix=(SG-1)*189+3.4.). Such variability suggests the presence of SS which have not been accounted for and this should be kept in mind.

Yield is measured in millilitres of juice per kilogram of fruit (ml/kg) and is based on the juice-only yield extracted from the fruit (in as far as is possible). (To convert this figure to US fl.oz. juice/lb fruit multiply this value by 0.0154.) Obviously this value depends on extraction techniques - the use of pectin destroying enzymes and harder pressing will increase yield, the presence of bulk/vegetal lees (particulate matter) will increase the figure false high, etc. In the worst case, the values presented here are based on moderate crushing/pressing and low lees volumes (straining, 24 hour minimum settling). Therefore, it is hoped/expected that these values are conservative estimates rather than over-estimates of yield.
P indicates the known use of pectin destroying enzyme, whilst
N indicates that either none was used, or that its use for the purposes of the yield value given are not significant.

Tannin is measured in grams per litre. A variety of analyses have been used to obtain these figures. Given the scarcity of tannin data, the various analyses will not be noted here.

Fruit Source refers to the growing/maturing condition of the fruit.
Fruit farm refers to fruit that has been grown commercially at a "pick your own"/"U pick" (this distinction is significant because it allows the winemaker to choose the harvest date and allows fruit selection),
Home grown refers to fruit that has been grown in a controlled home garden environment,
Cultivated refers to fruit that has been grown in an unknown controlled environment,
Wild refers to uncultivated fruit that has been picked from the wild.
"Home grown", "fruit farm" and "cultivated" fruit sources allow for (but do not neccessarily mean) harvesting at more favourable ripeness levels.

TA refers to Titratable Acidity measured as tartaric (g/l).
m indicates TAs measured as malic acid, and have been converted to tartaric by multiplying the malic value by 1.1193 (GFW of tartaric/GFW of malic).
c indicates TAs measured as citric, and have been converted to tartaric by multiplying the malic value by 1.0713.
Where acidity values have been quoted as % in the sources and the units have not been stated, it has been assumed that they are expressed as %/juice weight. Note that this assumption is, of course, not reasonable if the data were expressed as %/fruit weight.

In general
Ranges in data show true ranges from analyses on multiple fruits (i.e. multiple data sets have been used to obtain the range). The mean of the data within the range is presented after the range, i.e. written as "[min value - max value], [mean]".
? indicates that data is possibly questionable.
~ indicates that data is approximate, usually to within +/- 10%.
^ beside data (SG, TA) indicates that it has been converted (e.g. SG converted from a Brix value, TA expressed as malic/citric) and is given to 4 decimal places. Therefore, if readers find the conversion formulas above unsatisfactory they may accurately back calculate to the value as measured in the original units, follwed by recalculation with a more preferrable conversion formula.
(Average) written in the Variety column indicates that the values in this row are average values of all the values listed below for that fruit.

Table of Data

Fruit Variety SG TA pH Tannin Yield Location Fruit source Data source
Apple (average) 1.0139-1.0667, 1.0489 2.20-12.35, 6.70 3.44 1.03
Allington Pippin1.0487.80.5England, UKae
Annie Elizabeth1.0529.11.3England, UKae
Baldwin1.0499, 1.0481^ 5.373.50.6New England, USAaf
Ben Davis1.0450, 1.0468^4.813.70.6New England, USAaf
Blenhein Orange1.0515.90.5England, UKae
Bramley's Seedling 1.046 10.1-14.6 1.2-1 England, UK ae
Cap of Liberty1.0509.52.2England, UKae
Cox's Orange Pippin1.0576.90.6England, UKae
Crab 11.7383^ (11.4169^m + 0.3214^c) ac
Dabinett1.0532.22.5England, UKae
Delicious 3 ac
1.0539^, 1.0480@ 3 3.91 0.261 BC, Canada "optimum ripeness" ad
Dymock Red1.0526.22.2England, UKae
Edward VII1.0468.60.9England, UKae
Foxwhelp1.0487.82.4England, UKae
Frederick1.04811.20.9England, UKae
Golden Delicious 1.0586^, 1.0506@ 4.6 3.60 0.275 BC, Canada "optimum ripeness" ad
Grimes Golden 8.1 ac
Jonathon 8.4 ac
1.0556^, 1.0466@ 7.2 3.33 0.233 BC, Canada "optimum ripeness" ad
Jubliee 1.0615^, 1.0515@ 4.5 3.53 0.341 BC, Canada "optimum ripeness" ad
King1.0500, 1.0528^5.933.60.7New England, USAaf
Kingston Black1.0607.62.4England, UKae
Knotted Kernel1.0604.33.5England, UKae
Lane's Prince Albert1.0459.70.8England, UKae
Laxton's Superb1.0515.90.5England, UKae
McIntosh1.0400, 1.0468^5.373.50.8New England, USAaf
8.1 ac
1.0520^, 1.0442@ 6.0 3.35 0.375 BC, Canada "optimum ripeness" ad
Medaille d'Or1.0532.84.5England, UKae
Northern Spy1.0452, 1.0489^5.483.40.8New England, USAaf
1.0472@ 0.83 ag
Newtown 1.0564^, 1.0442@ 6.8 3.31 0.169 BC, Canada "optimum ripeness" ad
Newton Wonder1.0436.20.8England, UKae
Rhone Island Greening1.0450, 1.0489^ England, USAaf
Rome Beauty 8.7 ac
1.0139@ 0.77 ag
Rosebury Russet1.0652, 1.0661^7.503.30.6New England, USAaf
Russet 1.0099@ 0.51 ag
Stayman 1.0567^, 1.0476@ 6.6 3.37 0.236 BC, Canada "optimum ripeness" ad
Stirling Castle1.0407.20.3England, UKae
Sweet Alford1.0532.91.4England, UKae
Winesap 1.0611^, 1.0524@ 6.5 3.47 0.271 BC, Canada "optimum ripeness" ad
Wealthy1.0407.80.6England, UKae
1.0470, 1.0506^6.833.30.5New England, USAaf
1.0485^, 1.0397@ 9.4 3.10 0.230 BC, Canada "optimum ripeness" ad
Wellington1.04310.10.9England, UKae
Woodbine1.0573.41.6England, UKae
Worcester Permain1.0433.01.0England, UKae
Yarlington Mill1.0502.82.4England, UKae
Yellow Transparent 11.0715^ (10.8572^m + 0.2143^c) ac
1.0258-1.0657*, 1.0451* ac
2.9-4.5 ak
Apricot 3.05-4.5 ak
Blackberry (average) 1.021-1.033, 1.026 9.8-15.9, 12.1 3.18 535
510 SE Scotland, UK wild a
1.023 SE Scotland, UK cultivated a
?N Pacific NW, USA c
1.0206@ 9.8560^c f
Mixed Seedling 1.033 15.9^m 2.1 k
1.032 10.6 3.18 560 SE Scotland, U.K. Fruit farm a
Blueberry 1.0507@ 2.0355^c f
Bilberry (average) 1.0202-1.0421, 1.0202 13.7438-15.1169, 14.4304 3.08
Vaccinium myrtillus 1.0281^@ 13.7438^ (9.0203^c+4.7234^m) 2.98 Suonenjoki, Finland wild al
3.11-3.25 Finland am
15.1169^ (5.6029^c+9.5141^m) Germany an
1.0281^@ Finland ao
1.0256^@ Norway ap
1.0202-1.0347^@ Sweden aq
1.0322-1.0421^ Hemne, Norway wild bb
Currant (general) ?N Pacific NW, USA c
Blackcurrant (average) 1.0152-1.079, 1.028 29.3-48.2, 33.2 2.75-3.04, 2.93 4.1
1.054-1.066L SE Scotland, UK fruit farm a
1.0451@ 30.9606^c f
1.055-1.079, 1.0159-1.0432@ 33.2103-48.2085^c 2.48-3.60 2.4-5.8 n
Boskoop Giant 1.0588, 1.0302@ t
2.6-3.1 ak
Ribes rubrum 1.0270^@ 29.3273^ (25.4434^c+3.8840^m) 3.04 Suonenjoki, Finland cultivated al
2.95-3.00 Finland am
1.0313^@ Finland ao
1.0194-1.0464^@ Sweden aq
1.0408^@ England, USA, Switzerland, Finland ar
1.0167-1.0508^@ England at
1.0171-1.0215^@ Finland au
1.0152-1.0237^@ Finland av
1.043 32 2.75 766 SE Scotland, U.K. Fruit farm a
1.0652-1.0738^ Hemne, Norway cultivated bb
Redcurrant (average) 1.0113-1.0244, 1.023 21.4260-31.9111, 24.0750 3.01
21.5^m 3.19 h
1.0240@ 21.4260^c f
Ribes rubrum 1.0171^@ 31.9111^ (26.4825^c+5.4286^m) 2.91 Finland cultivated al
3.10 Finland am
1.0229^@ Finland ao
1.0244^@ England, USA, Switzerland, Finland ar
1.0113-1.0204^@ Finland av
1.0369-1.0489^ , 1.0438^ Hemne, Norway cultivated bb
Whitecurrant Ribes x pallidum 1.0384^@ 30.2891^ (25.7112^c+4.5779^m) 3.04 Suonenjoki, Finland cultivated al
1.0277^@ England, USA, Switzerland, Finland ar
Cherry (average) 1.0473-1.080, 1.0639 5.3-20.8, 12 3.79
Montmorency 1.0644; 1.0390*; 1.0628@ 14.8^m e
Montmorency 1.080 17.5^m 3.52 h
Early Richmond 1.0473; 1.0312*; 1.0548@ 16.9^m e
English Morello 1.0785; 1.0411*; 1.0746@ 20.8^m e
Bing 1.0491; 1.0427*; 1.0611@ 5.3^m e
3.7-4.4 ak
Sour cherry 1.0575-1.0790^ Hemne, Norway cultivated bb
Cloudberry / mulberry Rubus chamaemorus 1.0195^@ 12.6253^ (4.0067^c+8.6186^m) 3.20 Finnish Lapland wild al
3.25-3.41 Finland am
1.0135^@ Finland ao
Cranberry (average) 1.0117-1.0184, 1.0156 33.9227-38.5668, 36.2448 2.59
1.0117@ 38.5668^c g
(mooseberry) Vaccinium oxycoccus 1.0180^@ 33.9227^ (15.8124^c+18.1103^m) 2.37 S. Finland wild al
2.80-2.81 Finland am
1.0184^@ Finland ao
1.0144^@ Norway ap
(Black) Crowberry (average) 1.0197
Empertrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum 1.0157^@ 7.2448^ (2.4319^c+4.8130^m) 3.52 Suonenjoki, Finland wild al
1.0165^@ Norway ap
Empertrum nigrum 1.0270^ Hemne, Norway wild bb
Dewberry 1.029 SE Scotland, UK cultivated a
Elderberry (average) 1.027-1.043, 1.036 5.6-14.6, 10.5 3.75-4.21, 3.88 537
584 ab
red and green stemmed, Sambucus Niagra 1.030-1.046 635-680 SE Scotland, UK wild a
red stemmed, Sambucus Niagra 1.027 5.6 4.21 >376 SE Scotland, UK wild a
green & red stemmed, Sambucus Niagra 1.035 11.2 3.75 >580 SE Scotland, UK wild a
red stemmed, Sambucus Niagra 1.043 14.6 3.68 SE Scotland, UK wild a
Gooseberry (average) 1.0323-1.067, 1.041 9.0-24.0456, 19.5 3.2 2.1 600
purple, Worcesterberry 1.059-1.060L, 1.060L SE Scotland, UK home grown a
purple, Worcesterberry 1.068L 23 2.8 600 SE Scotland, UK home grown a
green, Keepsake 1.034 21.9^m 3.2 k
red, Ironmonger 1.036 9.0^m 1.0 k
red, Ribes uva-crispa 1.0376^@ 24.0456^ (11.9236^c+12.1220^m) 2.96 Finland cultivated al
3.95 Finland am
1.0323-1.0336^@ Finland ao
1.0326^@ England, USA, Switzerland, Finland ar
red 1.0562^ Hemne, Norway cultivated bb
Grapefruit (average) 1.0073-1.0490, 1.0412 2.7-3.55
1.048 13 b
2.7-3.2 w
1.0073-1.0193*, 1.0189-1.0331@ Florida u
1.0490^, 1.0202*, 1.0309@ California-Arizona u
1.0274-1.0405^ Florida v
1.0490^ Texas u
2.9-3.55 ak
Guava (average) 1.0260-1.0468, 1.0360 3.66
1.0360^ 3.2-4.2 s
1.0318-1.0468^, 1.0403^ 3.26-4.0, 3.62 Hawaii y
1.0260-1.0405^, 1.0316^ 9.5346-20.7832^c, 12.5342^c z
Kiwi 1.0490^ 4 s
Lemon (average) 1.0046-1.0579, 1.022 2.28
2.2-2.4 w
1.0279-1.0485^, 1.0373^; 1.0046* 7.6062-12.7485^c, 9.9631^c /100g 2.3 California-Arizona x
1.0067^ x
2.0-2.5 ak
<1.036 Corbie Hill, NSW, Australia cultivated a
Lime 1.0331-1.0579, 1.0404; 1.0000-1.0005@, 1.0000@ 5.2922-8.9132^c, 6.3957^c /100g 1.7-3.2 x
1.6-3.2 ak
Lingonberry / cowberry (average) 1.0281-1.0383, 1.0310 24.2 2.76
Vaccinium vitis-idaea 1.0334^@ 24.2309^ (19.5298^c+4.7011^m) 2.67 S. Finland wild al
2.78-2.90 Finland am
1.0326^@ Finland ao
1.0281^@ Norway ap
1.0215-1.0383^@ Sweden aq
Loganberry ?N Pacific NW, USA c
1.035 30.2^m 2.6 k
Mango (average) 1.0584-1.0876, 1.0731 2.2497-5.0351, 3.6900 4.21
4.3 s
Haden 1.0584-1.0708^, 1.0652^ 2.2497-4.7137^c, 3.6424^c 3.90-4.50, 4.10 Hawaii aa
Edward 1.0820-1.0854^, 1.0838^ 3.6424-3.9638^c, 3.8567^c 4.20 Hawaii aa
Joe Welch 1.0584-1.0622^, 1.0603^ 2.2497-5.4636^c, 3.8567^c 3.85-4.50, 4.18 Hawaii aa
Pope 1.0670-1.0721^, 1.0695^ 3.4282-3.7496^c, 3.6424^c 4.10-4.28, 4.19 Hawaii aa
Pirie 1.0807^ 3.8567^c 4.10 Hawaii aa
Zill 1.0781^ 3.1068^c 4.35 Hawaii aa
Waterhouse 1.0876 5.0351^c 4.20 Hawaii aa
Buchanan 1.0725 3.3210^c 4.20 Hawaii aa
Irwin 1.0605 2.8925^c 4.05 Hawaii aa
4.5 Hawaii and Nigeria ah
Black Mulberry Morus nigra 1.062-1.066^, 1.065^ 17.3658^c-30.1678^c, 22.5723^c 3.10-3.36, 3.28 840 La Gomera, Canary Islands ba
Orange 3.3-3.8 w
(bitter) 2.55-2.95 ak
(sweet) 2.7-4.3 ak
Papaya (puree) 1.0360^ 5 s
Solo 1.0645^ ai
Passionfruit (average) 1.0176-1.091, 1.057 3.08, 2.6-3.5 393
1.0468@ 22.9258^c 393 i
Purple 1.063-1.091, 1.072; 1.0129-1.0331*, 1.0240*; 1.0292-1.0545@, 1.0404@ 2.6-3.2, 2.8 205-485, 343 India o
Purple 1.0674; 1.0193* 3.3 443 Queensland, Australia p
Purple 1.0764^ Australia m
Yellow 1.0532-1.0746, 1.0618; 1.0240-1.0309*, 1.0274*; 1.0373-1.0473@, 1.0404@ 2.8-3.3, 3.0 Hawaii q
1.0176* 1.0326@ 3.5 Belgian Congo, Africa r
2.6-3.2 s
265-460, 292 i
300-330 Hawaii aj
2.6-3.4 ak
Peach Elegant Lady <1.034 650 Ille Roussillon, France store bought a
3.55-4.0 ak
Pear Bartlett 1.0575^ ? California?, USA d
3.0-4.5 ak
Pineapple 1.0490-1.0618^ d
3.8-4 s
3.05-3.45 ak
Plum (average) 1.050 10.9 3.505 690
Santa Rosa 1.052L, <1.047 Spain store bought a
Spanish Friar ~690 Spain store bought a
3.0-4.5 ak
mixture 1.048 10.9 3.26 cultivated a
Pomegranate 1.0571@ 15.7481^c j
Black Raspberry (average) 1.0301-1.049, 1.0396 8.6708
1.0301@ 11.1415^c f
Bristol 1.049 6.2^m h
Red Raspberry (average) 1.0153-1.081, 1.03705 11.1415-22.4, 18.73307 3.1 1.35 643
1.040L 470-?630 SE Scotland, UK fruit farm a
1.032L 19.9 2.96 655P SE Scotland, UK fruit farm a
1.0287@ 11.1415^c f
Marcy 1.081 22.4^m 3.12 h
Baumforth A 1.030-1.041, 1.034 17.6-25.0^m, 21.2^m 1.0-1.7 k
2.5-3.1 ak
Rubus idaeus 1.0413^@ 19.5097^ (16.2302^c+3.2795^m) 3.28 S. Finland wild al
1.0051-1.0416^@ Sweden aq
1.0236^@ England, USA, Switzerland, Finland ar
1.0153-1.0278^@ England, USA, Switzerland, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Germany, Romania, Hungary as
Purple Raspberry Sodus 1.044 21.6^m 3.13 h
Quince 1.0365@ 12.8556^c f
Rhubarb (average) 1.0102-1.024, 1.020 3.17 >569 a
1.021-1.024L N.Yorkshire, UK home grown
(+ non-location store bought)
1.019L >>12.4 3.17 >470 SE Scotland, UK home grown a
1.016-1.020L 3.09-3.17 >667 SE Scotland, UK store bought a
? 1.0102^@ 830-760 Oregon, USA az
Strawberry (average) 1.0129-1.0430, 1.028 7.5-13.2, 10.9 3.32 1.9 490
Cambridge Favourite ~500 SE Scotland, UK home grown a
1.032L 480 Maryland, USA fruit farm b
1.0129@ 10.8201^c f
Culver 1.041 13.2^m 3.48 h
Royal Sovereign 1.054 10.6^m 1.9 k
3.0-3.4 ak
Fragaria x ananassa 1.0261^@ 12.2345^ (7.2313^c+5.0033^m) 3.50 Suonenjoki, Finland cultivated al
3.40-3.45 Finland am
1.0219-1.0234^@ Finland ao
1.0202-1.0375^@ Sweden aq
1.0223^@ England, USA, Switzerland, Finland ar
1.0170-1.0289^@ Finland au
1.0165-1.0263^@ Finland av
1.0131-1.0332^@ Germany, Italy, England, Finland, Switzerland aw
1.0200-1.0430^@ Finland ax
Fragaria x ananassa cv. Selva) 7.5 3.51 Watsonville, CA, USA ay
1.028L Scotland, U.K. cultivated a
1.0322^ Main Ridge, VIC, Australia cultivated a

Data Sources

a = Ben Rotter, personal winemaking experience.
b = Roger Placer, "Re: pure strawberry wine plans" rec.crafts.winemaking Usenet newsgroup thread, begun 2003-05-28. (Checked and used with permission).
c = Yang, H. Y., Thomas, G. E., and Wiegand, E. H. 1950. The application of pectic enzymes to berry and Concord wines. Wines and Vines 31, No. 4, 77-78.
d = Amerine, M. A., Berg, H. W., Cruess, W. V. 1967. The Technology of Wine Making. 2nd ed. The AVI Publishing Company Inc.
e = Swisher, C. A. and Poe, C. F. 1935. Chemical changes accompanying the fermentation of cherry juice. Fruit Products J. 14, 367-369, 379.
f = Chatfield, C., and McLaughlin, L. I. 1931. Proximate composition of foods. U.S. Dept. Agr. Circ. 50, Rev.
g = Rice, C. C., Fellers, C. R., and Clague, J. A. 1939. Cranberry juice - manufacture and properties. N.Y. State Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 728.
h = Pederson, C. S., Beattle, H. G., and Stotz, E. H. 1947. Deterioration of processed fruit juices. N.Y. State Agr. Expt. Sta. Bull. 728.
i = Poore, H. D. 1935. Passion fruit products. Fruit Products J. 14, 264-266, 285.
j = Nelson, E. K. 1927. The non-volatile acids of the pear, quince, apple, loganberry, blueberry, cranberry, lemon and pomegranate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 49, 487-488.
k = Charley, V. L. S. 1932. Investigations on fruit products. 6 - Fruit syrups. Ann. Rept. Long Ashton Research Sta. 162.
l = Charley, V. L. S. 1936. Chemical constituents of fresh juices from single varieties of soft fruits, and the suitability of juices for syrup manufacture. Ann.. Rept. Long Ashton Research Sta. 207.
m = Osmond, A., and Wilson, W. (1954). Tables of composition of Australian foods. Australian Insititute of Anatomy, Canberra.
n = Kieser, M. E., Pollard, A., and Sissons, D. J. 1957. The acitivity of pectin methylesterase in black currants. Progress Rept. Ann. Rept. Long Ashton Research Sta. 134-137.
o = Pruthi, J. S., and Lal, G. 1959. Chemical composition of passion fruit (P.edulis). J. Sci. Food Agr. 10, 188-192.
p = Gurney, E. H. 1937. Composition of some fruits and fruit waste. Queensland Agr. J. 47, 403-405.
q = Boyle, F. P., Shaw, T. N., and Herman, G. D. 1955. Efficient extraction single strength technique open up wide uses for new passion fruit juice. Food Eng. 27, No. 9, 94, 184.
r = Wilbaux, R. 1954. Private communication from Bureau d'Etudes Techniques, Bukavu, Belgian Congo in Tressler, D.K. et al. Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing Technology. The AVI Publishing Co. Inc. Westport, Connecticut. 1961.
s = Hicks, D. ed. 1990. Production and Packaging of Non-Carbonated Fruit Juices and Fruit Beverages. Blackie and Son Ltd, Glasgow and London.
t = Koch, J., and Zeyen, E. 1957. Standardization of black currant juice by means of chemical analysis. Fruchtsaft-Ind. 2, 121-127.
u = Sinclair, W. B. 1972. The Grapefruit. Univ. of Calif. Press, Riverside and USDA. 1962. Chemistry and Technology of Citrus. Citrus Products and Byproducts. U.S. Dep. Agric. Handbk., 98.
v = Roberts, J. A. and Gaddum, L. W. 1937. Composition of citrus fruit juices. Ind. Eng. Chem. 29, 574-575.
w = Sunkist Research Division. 1965. Unpublished results. Sunkist Growers. Res. Dep. Ontario, Calif. in Tressler, D. K., et al. 1980. Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing Technology. AVI Publishing Co. 3rd ed.
x = Tressler, D. K., et al. 1980. Fruit and Vegetable Juice Processing Technology. AVI Publishing Co. 3rd ed.
y = Boyle, F. P., Seagrave-Smith, H., Sakata, S. and Sherman, G.D. 1957. Commercial guava processing in Hawaii. Univ. of Hawaii, Hawaii Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 111, 5-30.
z = Nakasone, H. Y., Brekke, J. E., and Cavaletto, C. G. 1976. Fruit and yield evaluation of ten clones of guava (Psidium guajava L.). Hawaii Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Rpt. 218.
aa = Brekke, J. E., Cavaletto, C. G., Stafford, A. E., and Chan, H. T. Jr. 1975. Mango: Processed Products. U.S. Dep. Agric., Agric. Res. Serv. in Coop. with Hawaii Agric. Exp. Sta. ARS-W23.
ab = Rice, C. C., Fellers, C. R., Clague, J. A. 1939. Cranberry juice - manufacture and properties. Fruit Prod. J. 18, 197-200, 219.
ac = Joslyn, M. A. 1950. Methods in Food Analysis applied to Plant Products. Academic Press, New York.
ad = Atkinson, F. E. and Strachan, C. C. 1949. Production of juices, Dominion of Canada. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 63. and 1949. Preservation of color in the milling of apples for natural apple juice. Food Technol. 4, 133-135.
ae = Charley, V. L. S. and Harrison, T. H. J. 1939. Fruit juices and related products. Imp. Bur. Hort. and Plant. Crops. Tech. Commun. 11.
af = Clague, J. A. and Fellers, C. R. 1936. Apple cider and cider products. Mass. Agric. Expt. Sta. Bull. 36.
ag = Smock, R. M. and Neubert, A. M. 1950. Apples and Apple Products. Interscience Publishers. New York.
ah = Bruno, A. and Goldberg, P. H. 1963. The morphology and chemical composition of some Nigerian mangoes (Mangifera indica L.). Trop. Agric. 40, 376-152. and Orr, K. J. and Miller, C. 1955. Description and quality of some mango varieties grown in Hawaii and their stability for freezing. Hawaii Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 26.
ai = Chan, H. T. Jr. and Kwok, S. C. M. 1975. Identification and determination of sugars in some tropical fruit products. J Food Sci. 40, 419-420 and Chan, H. T. Jr. and Kwok, S. C. M. 1975. Importance of enzyme inactivation prior to extraction of sugars from papaya. J. Food Sci. 40, 770-771.
aj = Akamine, E.K. et al. 1956. Passion fruit culture in Hawaii. Univ. Hawaii Coll. Agr. Extension Circ. No. 345 Rev.
ak = Pollard, A. 1959. Organic acids and amino acids in fruit juices. Report V. Int. Fruit Juice Congress Vienna.
al = Viljakainen, S., Visti, A., and Laakso, S. 2002. Concentrations of Organic Acids and Soluble Sugars in Juices of Nordic Berries. Acta Agriculture Scandinavica, Sect. B, Soil and Plant Sci. 52:101-109.
am = Kuusi, T. 1969. On the chemical composition and characteristic indexes of some Finnish berries. State Insititue for Technical Research, Finland. Report Series IV - Chemistry 100, Helsinki.
an = Souci, S.W., Fachmann, W. and Kraut, H. 1994. Food Composition and Nutrition Tables. Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart, p. 832-859.
ao = Salo, M.-L. and Suomi, K. 1972. Carbohydrate and acid composition of Finnish berries. Maataloustiet. Aikak. 44, 68-75.
ap = Solberg, Y. 1980. Changes in sucrose, fructose and glucose content of frozen strawberries with thawing. J. Food Sci. 48, 1094-1096.
aq = Fuchs, G. and Wretling, S. 1991. Kemisk sammansattning hos blabar, ahllon, jordgubbar, lingon och svarta vinbar. Var Foda 43, 425-438.
ar = Southgate, D.A.T., Paul, A.A., Dean, A.C. and Christie, A.A. 1978. Free sugars in foods. J. Human Nutr. 32, 335-347.
as = Spanos, G.A. and Wrolstad, R.E. 1987. Anthocyanin pigment, nonvolatile acids, and sugar composition of red raspberry juice. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 70, 1036-1046.
at = Charley, V.L.S. 1977. Black currant juice processing technologu. Verlag Gunter Hempel, Braunschweig, pp. 43-58.
au = Haila, K. 1990. Markkinoilla olevien vihannesten, marjojen seka omenien sisaltamat sokerit ja orgaaniset hapot. EKT-sarja 840. Helsingin Yliopisto. Elintarvikekemian- ja teknologian laitos, Helsinki, 103 pp.
av = Haila, K., Kumpulainen, J., Hakkinen, U. and Tahvonen, R. 1992. Sugar and organic acids in berries and fruits consumed in Finland during 1987-1989. J. Food Comp. Anal. 5, 108-111.
aw = Herrmann, K. 1996. Inhaltsstoffe der Erdbeeren. Industrielle Obstung Gemusevertung 81, 154-161.
ax = Kallio, H., Hakala, M., Pelkkikangas, A.-M. and Lapbetelainen, A. 2000. Sugars and acids of strawberry varieties. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 212, 81-85.
ay = Gil, M.I., Holcroft, D.M. and Kader, A.A. 1997. Changes in Strawberry Anthocyanins and Other Polyphenols in Response to Carbon Dioxide Treatments. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1662-1667.
az = Wasson Brothers Winery (Sandy, Orgeon) quoted in Archibald, D.L. 2001. Fruit Winemaking Quarterly, Vol. 11, Iss. 3, July 2001.
ba = Darias-Martín, J., Lobo-Rodrigo, G., Hernández-Cordero, J., Díaz-Díaz, E. and Díaz-Romero, C. 2003. Alcoholic Beverages from Black Mulberry. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 41 (2) 173-176.
bb = Karl Jørgen Kristiansen, personal communication